نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی
1 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد هنر اسلامی با گرایش نگارگری، دانشکده حفاظت و مرمت، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران
2 استادیار گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده علوم نظری و مطالعات عالی هنر، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Farr(ah)/xvarənah-, a key concept in Persian thought and culture which literally means ‘glory’ and ‘splendour’, probably related etymologically to the word xuar/n ‘sun’, but mostly understood as a divine power and glory endowed upon the chosen ones. The discourse formation of farr(ah), through texts belonging to different periods, reaches its full development during the Islamic period, especially in the teachings of Suhrawardī, the well-known founder of the Persian Illuminationist school of philosophy. Based on a qualitative method, the present study aims at classifying and arranging the different types of farr(ah) and also investigates how the Qur’ānic teachings, especially the Qur’ānic divine Names, influenced transformation of the concept of farr(ah) during the Islamic period. Farr(ah) was a royal and divine attribute and occurs in phrases like farr-u-awrang. Burz (the lofty one), warz (Av. varəcah, the vital energy) and bagh (a deity or divine power distributing settled portions and deserved fates, Sans. bhaga) may be mentioned among the other important words and notions accompanying the notion of farr(ah). Major types of farr(ah) are as the followings: farr-i kiyānī (royal splendour attributed to virtuous kings), farr-i Īrānī (showing that farr(ah) corresponded not only to the concept of royal fortune but also to that of ‘fortune’ in a more general sense), farr-i zartusht and farr-i mūbadī (fortune and splendour attributed to the priestly class). As a magic force of luminous and fiery nature, the notion of farr(ah) closely accompanied the key notions of ‘beauty’, ‘wisdom’ and ‘power’, hence, it may manifest itself through an interconnected network of living beings, including animals and plants, as well as non-living objects. As a result of the promotion of equality and hence removal of Sassanid social classes during the Islamic period, the concept of farr(ah) – influenced by the Qur’ānic divine Names and Qualities including Mercy and Light alongside the key notion of Sakīna (Spirit of Tranquility, divine Presence and Indwelling) - transformed into a more mature and rich form.