تعیین چرایی تشریع عبادات و نقش آنها در سایر شؤون انسانی مجال برداشتهایی مانند مقصودیت بالذات، شأن سلبی ویا منزلت ایجابی و إعدادی عبادات را فراهم میآورد. پژوهش حاضر درصدد پاسخ به این مسأله است که در نگاه صدرالمتألّهین شیرازی عبادات در پیدایش، تکامل یا ظهور احوال و معارف انسان از چه منزلتی برخوردارند؟ هدف این تحقیق نیز کشف کارکردهای عبادات در این فرآیند است که با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی دنبال میشود. صدرا احکام را تابع ملاکات نفسالأمری میداند و مقصود از تشریع أحکام را رساندن نفعی عام و مصلحتی کلی به انسانها میشمارد. براساس یافتههای این پژوهش در تبیین رابطهی میان اعمال، احوال و معارف باید وجود ملاکات واقعی برای عبادات را پذیرفت و بر تعامل میان شؤون انسانی و فرآیند دو قوس صعودی و نزولیِ سیر اختیاری انسان متمرکز شد. از نظر صدرا مقامات سهگانه مزبور رابطهی طرفینی و چند جانبه دارند و کشف این رابطه از طریق شناخت حرکت تعاملی بین نفس و بدن و تبیین واقعیت جمعی و تشکیکی انسان میسّر است. توجه به رابطه تعاملی و تعاکس إیجابی- إعدادی میان نفس و بدن و تنازل و تصاعد یافتن مواطن هیأت آن دو، نشان میدهد أعمال در قوس صعود شأن عدمی، إعدادی و مقدمهای و در قوس نزول شأن وجودی و ثمری و ظهوری دارند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Existential-Non-existence status of the objects of worship in terms of education and knowledge from the point of view of Sadr al-Mutalahin
Determining the reason for legislating worships and their role in other human affairs provides the opportunity for perceptions such as the intrinsic purpose, negative dignity or positive and preparatory dignity of worships. The present research is trying to answer this question that in the eyes of Sadr al-Mutalahin Shirazi, what is the status of worship in the origin, evolution or emergence of human conditions and knowledge? The purpose of this research is to discover the functions of worship in this process, which is followed by descriptive-analytical method. Sadra considers the rulings to be subject to the criteria of self-determination and considers the purpose of legislating rulings to be to provide general benefit and general expediency to humans. Based on the findings of this research, in explaining the relationship between actions, circumstances and knowledge, the existence of real criteria for worship should be accepted and focused on the interaction between human affairs and the process of the two ascending and descending arcs of the voluntary course of man. According to Sadra, the aforementioned three authorities have a bilateral and multilateral relationship, and discovering this relationship is possible through understanding the interactive movement between the soul and the body and explaining the collective reality of human beings. Paying attention to the interactive relationship and the positive-preparatory interaction between the soul and the body, and the concession and escalation of the citizen of the two, shows that actions in the arc of ascent have non-existent, preparatory and preliminary status, and in the arc of descent, they have existential and fruitful status.
Man is a being who has a benefit from the lower world, i.e. the world, and a share from the upper world, i.e. the hereafter. Every religious practice also has an external shell and an internal core; The shell is related to this world and its core is related to the hereafter, just as the Sharia's meaning of the purity of clothes and body is the purity of the heart, which is the inner core, and the purity of the heart is to purify it from religious pollution such as disbelief and reprehensible filth. Morality is like envy, miserliness, extravagance, similarly, the meaning of the Shariah of any worship is the effect it creates in the heart. (Sadr al-Din Shirazi, 1366 A: 1/279) If there are no real benefits and harms behind the acts of worship, then talking about the effect of action in the creation of knowledge will not have the same meaning.
In the upcoming article, we will analyze the wisdom of the law of worship or commitment to worship (by relying on and analyzing the texts of the Sadras). Sadra believes in the basis of rulings on merits and demerits and documents Sharia rulings on merits and demerits. It is important to address this issue because it states whether the desired materials are genuine in essence and purpose or are they merely preparatory and preliminary? For this purpose, based on the thoughts of Sadrul Matalhin Shirazi, the following of the rulings is explained first, and then the nonexistent or existential dignity of the phrase, and in other words, their preparatory or positive dignity, is explained.
The results obtained from the above research can be summarized in the following axes:
Each religious authority has three components: science, present and action. The relationship between these three is one-sided and multilateral. The mechanism of the effect of each of these three things on the other is as follows. In the ascending arc, there is a movement from the side of action to the side of knowledge. Action by repetition creates the queen, and the queen causes the birth of knowledge. In the descending arc, science strengthens the properties and the properties produce a new action.
Each of the knowledge, conditions and actions are valid and reliable. Knowledge and knowledge are both the beginning of states and actions and the end of them. As science and knowledge are both subject and end.
Acts and acts of worship have both nonexistent and existential dignity. The lack of dignity of worship is related to the arc of the ascension, which causes the repetition of the deeds of the queens. Following the repetition of the action, the effect and state that arises in the soul, becomes solid and becomes a habit. The more the action is repeated, the more the current becomes the queen. Repetition of actions, in Sadra's eyes, removes obstacles and hijabs so that the soul can enjoy possessions; Therefore, repeating the actions is not from the appropriate Sunnah, but from the Sunnah of the removal of obstacles and hijab, which are non-existent matters. Also, when the soul reaches the level of possessing and being capable of possessing a conscience, it removes the veils of acquiring knowledge. Therefore, in Sadra's view, action is important due to the role it plays in self-fulfillment and knowledge acquisition, which is a secondary and transverse role.
Existential dignity of worship and actions finds its meaning in the arc of descent and movement from knowledge to states and then actions. In this movement, action is considered as the fruit of science, and knowledge is a prelude to action as required by science. With this knowledge, man performs worship and avoids sins.
Worships because of their role in reaching the knowledge of God. are ranked. Sins are also ranked due to the negative role they have in acquiring knowledge. Therefore, the greatest sin is to block the way to divine knowledge.