نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه و کلام اسلامی، گروه فلسفه، دانشکدهی حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،
2 استادیار گروه فلسفهی دین، دانشگاه ادیان و مذاهب، قم، ایران.
3 استادیار گروه فلسفه، مؤسسهی پژوهشی حکمت و فلسفهی ایران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Muslim thinkers who believe in the creation of the world by one God have expressed many theories about the quality of the connection between the Created and the Being and the connection between the Many and the One. One of these theories, which has gained popularity and acceptance especially among the philosophers, is the “Intellect(s) Theory”. According to this theory, the first thing issued by God, is a creature called the "Intellect" from which other Intellects and creatures of the universe are issued. Is this creature corporeal or Incorporeal? Is it a created or a being? Is it compound or single? In a word, what is the quality of the existence of the Intellect?
Philosophers and thinkers have tried to answer these questions according to their intellectual foundations and have tried to explain and prove their position. However, Banu Amin's performance seems a little different. Bānu Amin is one of the contemporary thinkers who has compiled works in Persian and Arabic in the fields of philosophy, theology, mysticism and interpretation of the Qur'ān and has expressed her philosophical opinions in these works. Some of her works are Arba'een Al-Hāshimia, Jāme-al-Shattāt, Nafahāt al-Rahmāniyyah fi al-Wārdāt al-Qalbiyyah, Tafsir Makhzan al-Irfan (15 volumes). Bānu Amin, influenced by the Transcendent Philosophy but not devoted to it, in dealing with the problem of intellects, accepts the third theory; Sometimes, she introduces the intellect as something corporeal and pre-eternal (uncreated), and sometimes as something Incorporeal and Created. Bānu Amin brings up problems criticizing both of these views and answers some of them, and finally she proposes the "Muhammadiyah's Spirit Theory" as an alternative theory of the First Intellect. In this article, an attempt is made to meticulously present the problems of Bānu Amin’s work regarding the quality of the existence of the Intellects; the createdness or pre-eternity and materiality or incorporeality of the First Intellect, each of these problems and their answers will be examined and criticized. Then the final opinion of Bānu Amin will be explained and reviewed.
Researchers have investigated some of the philosophical aspects of Bānu Amin. Considering these researches, so far, the opinions of Bānu Amin about the First Intellect and intellects have not been examined independently or in any book or article; therefore, the present article is an innovative research in terms of the systematic presentation of Bānu Amin's views on this matter and their criticism and analysis.
The present research is a research, theoretical and its method is analytical-critical. The research approach is also qualitative; Qualitative research requires identifying sources related to the research topic, studying texts, understanding the meaning of the text and extracting the desired content from these sources, establishing a relationship between the content and describing and analyzing and criticizing them, and discussing and concluding the collected information.
Discussion and Results
Bānu Amin, as a follower of Mullā-sadrā's School of philosophy, has differences with her predecessors in some positions, such as the division of the human soul forces, the “Intellects Theory”, etc. Regarding the Intellects Theory, while criticizing the previous theories, she proposes the Theory of the Muhammadiyah's Spirit. The main question of the present research is the critical review of her encounter with the Intellects Theory and the evaluation of the Muhammadiyah's Spirit Theory. In her opinion, the Incorporeality and pre-eternity of the First Intellect is emphasized and she considers the First Intellect to have a delicate substance. Bānu Amin answers the eight problems surrounding the Intellects Theory; two problems are about the Incorporeality and pre-eternity of the intellect, five problems are about the corporeality of the intellect, and one problem is about the longitudinal order and the number of the Intellects. On the one hand, she considers rational reasons for Incorporeal of Intellects to be acceptable. On the other hand, she believes that considering the narrative evidences and the flaws of the rule of “Alvahed”, the corporeality of intellects could not be rejected thoroughly. Therefore, in the end, she considers the corporeality of the Intellects to be permissible and, as an alternative theory, uses the Muhammadiyah's Spirit theory to explain the relationship between the One and the Many. Sometimes she considers the Muhammadiyah's Spirit to be equivalent to the First Intellect, and sometimes by assuming the First Intellect to be corporeal and the Muhammadiyah's Spirit to be Incorporeal, she considers them to be different from each other.
Therefore, Bānu Amin criticizes the Theories that existed about Intellects until then, and accepts and proves some parts of both Theories of Corporeal and Incorporeal of Intellects, and rejects some parts, and finally, expresses a new Theory about Intellects. In addition, in this regard, she even suggests a new definition of the substance. Bānu Amin is close to the mystics in the Muhammadiyah's Spirit Theory. Muhammadiyah's Spirit is the first issued from whom the First Intellect is issued, and the same characteristics that the philosophers have listed for the First Intellect, she counts for the Muhammadiyah's Spirit. Relying on narrative reasons and their preference and discussion from different points of view, Bānu Amin has proposed this new theory.
20. اهلسرمدی، نفیسه و ایزدی، مریمالسادات. (1392). «مقایسهی دیدگاه حکیم مدرس زنوزی و بانو امین در توحید ذات»، الهیات تطبیقی، شماره 10، ص119 تا