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بررسی تبعات اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اخلاقی الهیات ظاهرگرایانه از منظر ملاصدرا

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه اصفهان، دانشکده ادبیات، گروه فلسفه و کلام اسلامی

2 گروه فلسفه و کلام اسلامی ، دانشکده الهیات و مطالعات اهل بیت ، دانشگاه اصفهان ،

10.30465/cw.2021.6837

چکیده

الهیات ظاهرگرایانه و فهم سطحی از دین، به عنوان یک جریان فکری و اعتقادی همواره در طول تاریخ اسلام، در قالب اندیشه­های مختلف مطرح و در عرصه­های اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اخلاقی تاثیرگذار بوده است. ملاصدرا (979-1050ق) در اغلب آثار خود وارد بررسی و نقد این جریان و تبعات آن، در جامعه زمان خود می­شود. مسئله اصلی برای او نقد الهیات ظاهرگرایانه است که فهم دین را محصور در سطح ظاهری نصوص و عمل دینی را محصور در فقه فردی کرده است. در این پژوهش با روش اسنادی و تحلیل محتوا و توصیف­گرایانه، به بررسی اینگونه تبعات می­پردازیم و خواهیم دید که ملاصدرا زمانه خود را در اثر فراگیر شدن جهل، تعصب، ریاکاری، از بین رفتن اخلاق و فضیلتهای اصیل انسانی، گسترش فساد و دنیاگرایی، پیدایش شبه­علما، جایگزینی فقه صرفاً فردی به جای فقه اجتماعی، از میان رفتن عدالت و گسترش ظلم، زمانه انحطاط و انحراف از مسیر اصلی زندگی می­داند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Social, Cultural, and Moral Consequences of the formalistity theology in Mulla Sadra's View

نویسندگان [English]

  • somayeh malleki 1
  • Mahdi Emami Jome 2
  • nafiseh ahl sarmadi 2
1 Somayeh Malleki , Ph.D. Student of Islamic Philosophy, Department of Literature, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Faculty Theology and Ahlul-Bayt’s Studies, University of Isfahan,
چکیده [English]

Introduction:  
Superficial theology and superficial understanding of religion, as a current of thought and belief throughout the history of Islam, has been presented in the form of various ideas and has been influential in social, cultural and moral fields. Mulla Sadra (979-1050 AH) in most of his works enters into the study and critique of this trend and its consequences in the society of his time. The main issue for him is the critique of superficial theology, which has limited the understanding of religion to the apparent level of texts and religious practice to individual jurisprudence. In most of his works, Mulla Sadra has criticized this kind of understanding of religion and believes that if we put all our efforts in grammar, we cannot provide a correct understanding of religion and religious texts. Therefore, one of the main axes of Sadra's thought is the critique of this type of understanding and the study of its social, political, moral and cultural consequences. In this study, we will conclude that if the ostensible understanding of religion prevails in society, the false moral values ​​will prevail in society, and therefore the people of society will move towards cultural and moral decline every day. Basically, the goal of religion and morality is to value human beings and life. In fact, it should be said that from Mulla Sadra's point of view, there can be a significant relationship between this kind of understanding and interpretation of religion on the one hand and ethics, culture, people and even social and political sovereignty in a society on the other hand. Based on our best knowledge, no article or book has been written independently on the subject of this article in Persian, Arabic and English. However, we can indirectly use the following works to some extent; Emami Jome (2012) in an article entitled Hermeneutic Horizons of Transcendent Wisdom and Social, Cultural Mulla Sadra has studied the hermeneutic foundations of transcendent wisdom and its historical, social and cultural mission. Also, Arshad Riahi and Tabatabai (2016) in an article as strategies for reviving morality in society from the perspective of Sadr al-Muta'allehin to examine the strategies for reviving morality in societies that have been ruled by moral depravity or in the path of separation from values. Divine morality has been established, paid for.
Method and Material:
In this study, we have assumed that from Mulla Sadar's point of view, there is a significant relationship between a superficial understanding and interpretation of religion and moral, cultural and social issues. To prove this hypothesis, we had a comprehensive overview on documentary, library and content analysis and descriptive methods.
Results and Discussion:
The type of knowledge of societies about religion is influential in the ethics and culture of the society. Mulla Sadra has had a special view on this issue. He considers religious communities to be prone to religious violence due to the superficiality of scholars also he beleives that unreal scholars at any time, under the support of their rulers, have interpreted the verses of the Qur'an superficially in accordance with their thoughts and ideas, and in fact have imposed their opinions and prejudices on the Qur'an in order to achieve their goals. They have hired religion. The result of using unrealistic scholars for the government is that the government gains legitimacy through them,Therefore, it should be said that Mulla Sadra expresses the situation of his time not only as a complaint but also as a lesson. and it seems that his main concern to be about the future. Basically, the goal of morality should be to value human beings and their lives, and to stand against God's creatures is against human values, and Mulla Sadra pays special attention to this issue. According to Mulla Sadra, as science and knowledge spread in the society, the cultural, moral and existential perfection of the citizens increases and vice versa. If we want to express Mulla Sadra's conception of his time correctly, we must say that in his opinion, his time was a time of decline and a kind of deviation from the main path of human life. Although he could not take a step towards social, cultural and moral education due to the social conditions of his time, but today, with the help of his views, it is possible to provide the necessary and appropriate social, cultural and moral contexts. In this area, it is necessary to pay attention to the material, spiritual and planning needs for the cultural and moral flourishing of Islamic societies at the same time. As a result, it should be said that Mulla Sadra's philosophy is not just a collection of dry philosophical topics; rather, it is a coherent, well-founded, purposeful, dynamic, and practical system of thought, and if its content is considered, it can have a positive impact on human individual and social life.
Conclusion:
The type of societies' knowledge of religion influences the ethics and culture of that society. Lack of a rational approach to religion can severely adversely affect the family, society, culture, and moral system. Mulla Sadra considers religious communities to be prone to religious violence due to the superficiality of scholars. Unrealistic scholars in every age and time, under the protection of their rulers, have interpreted the verses of the Qur'an superficially according to their thoughts and ideas, and in fact, instead of interpreting the Qur'an, they have imposed their opinions and prejudices on the Qur'an. They have used religion to achieve their goals, as a result of which Mulla Sadra considers the mixing of imperfect scholars with sages and sultans as the cause of any sedition that has taken place in religion. Because religious scholars have a deep-rooted spiritual base among the people, the government can increase its popularity among the people by approaching unrealistic scholars. Mulla Sadra describes the situation of his time not only as a complaint but also as a lesson, and it seems that Mulla Sadra's main concern is with the future.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Formalistity
  • Mulla Sadra
  • Ignorance
  • hypocrisy
  • Ethics
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