حکمت معاصر

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه و حکمت اسلامی، دانشکده الهیات. دانشگاه ایلام

2 دانشیار فلسفه و حکمت اسلامی، دانشکده الهیات. دانشگاه ایلام. ایران

3 استادیار فلسفه اسلامی دانشگاه ایلام


Contrary to classical theory of metaphor that According to which metaphor only creats on basis objective similarity between two domain of experience, contemporary theory of metaphor consider that only objective similarity is not basis of framing metaphor but also non-objective similarity and experiential cooccurrence are basis of framing metaphor, In contemporary theory, theoretical concepts formulated through metaphorical extending of physical experiences.metaphor is mapping structure of source domain to target domain.causality is one of the major concepts in philosophy that conceptualized with various metaphors.causality has special status in Suhrawardi's philosophical system and various metaphors have been used to describe causality. In Shaykh al-Ishrag's philosophical system causality is conceptualized through physical experiences such as Illumination,motion,give,generating and build.accordingly causes are embodied such as sun,beginner,giver,parents, builder and effects such as ray and shadow,moving ,receiver,child,built. Some causal metaphors indicate the similarity of cause and effect and others indicate the dissimilarity of cause and effect.Since the discussion of metaphor is also related to the discussion of symbol,, it is pointed out that some metaphors of causality in Suhrawardi's philosophy are symbolic metaphors.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Inquiry into Some Metaphors of Causality in Philosophy of Suhrawardi

نویسندگان [English]

  • zeinab zargooshi 1
  • reza rezazadeh 2
  • majid ziaei 3

1 PhD Student, Islamic Philosophy, University of Ilam

2 islamic philosophy, university of ilam, iran

3 islamic philosophy. university of ilam

چکیده [English]

Inquiry into Some Metaphors of Causality in Philosophy of Suhrawardi
This research aims at investigating some specific metaphorical applications of the concept of causality in Suhrawardi's philosophy, basically referring to the theory of conceptual metaphor.Hitherto, two traditional and contemporary theories have been discussed in this regard. Regarding the traditional theory represented by Aristotle Metaphor, it can be regarded as the use of the name of something for something else.According to this view, the reason why one word is used instead of another is a pre-existing and objective similarity between the two phenomena.Contemporary metaphor theory holds that,in addition to objective similarity,non-objective similarities, the creation of similarities by the mind and the correlation in experience are bases for the formation of metaphors. In Suhrawardi's philosophy, causality has been conceptualized as a key philosophical concept with the help of various metaphors.
Research Questions
This research tries to answer basic questions: How Suhrawardi used metaphor in conceptualizing causality?What metaphors have been used in Suhrawardi's philosophy to conceptualize causality?And, finally,what is the connection between the symbol in Suhrawardi's philosophy and metaphor?
Research  Hypothesis
-Suhrawardi has used metaphor in conceptualizing causality.
-In Suhrawardi's philosophy, the metaphors of "causality is Illumination","causality is the Forced Movement","causality is the Transfer Of Possessions"," causality is to generate" and"causality is to build" were used to conceptualize causality.
-The basis of metaphor formation is different.In Suhrawardi's philosophy,a metaphor whose formation is based on the inherent similarity between the two phenomena is regarded as symbol. Accordingly, the metaphors of "causality is Illumination", "causality is to generate” and"causality is to build” are symbolic metaphors.
The research method in this paper is analytical, comparative and somehow  critical.The research tool is the authoritative books and articles.Through these references, we first obtained the principles and foundations of the theory of conceptual metaphors.In the next step, we extracted the conceptual metaphors of causality.Afterwards, we studied the conceptual metaphors of causality in Suhrawardi philosophy.In the final step, the relationship between the theory of conceptual metaphor and the discussion of symbol in Suhrawardi's philosophy is examined.
Suhrawardi has used various metaphors to describe and conceptualize causality. The introduced metaphors are only a part of the metaphors of causality in Suhrawardi's works. in fact, he is a descriptor in some of the causal metaphors.In some causal metaphors, causality is described by illumination.Immaterial effects such as ray and material effects such as shadoware depicted. Motion schema is one of the most widely used image schemas for conceptualizing abstract concepts. In the philosophy of illumination, the Forced Movement is used to illustrate causality.The metaphor of "causality is the transfer of Possessions " can also be seen in the works of Shaykh al-Ishrag.The experience of creating/generating is also one of the conventional experiences that Shaykh al-Ishrag uses to describe causality.In this metaphor, causes are conceptualized as parents and effects as child.Causality is also depicted by the metaphor of "causality is to build".According to the metaphor of "causality is illumination ", there is a similarity between cause and effect.But, according to the metaphor of "causality is the transfer of Possessions " which has three components, a kind of demarcation between cause and effect is associated.The use of the metaphor of "causality is to build" also associates inconsistency and dissimilarity between cause and effect. The most widely used metaphor in Suhrawardi's philosophy for conceptualizing causality is the metaphor of "causality is illumination".The discussion of metaphor is also related to the discussion of symbol. In Suhrawardi's philosophy, a metaphor whose formation is based on the inherent similarity between two phenomena is called symbol.The metaphors "causality is illumination","causality is to generate"and "causality is to build” are of this type. The sun and human in the material world are similar to Immaterials and are symbols of Immaterial.Thus, the causality of Immaterials is conceptualized in the following terms:sunshine and human characteristics such as generating and construction. But, the basis of metaphor is not always the inherent similarity betweenthe two phenomena. On the contrary; sometimes, the human mind creates similarities.The human mind depicts attributes as objects and causality as the transfer of objects, and on this basis the metaphor "causality is the transfer of Possessions " is formed.The basis of metaphor can also be co-occurrencein experience.The co-occurrence between change and motion in conventional experience causes that causality, which is a kind of change in the state of effect to be illustrated as motion. Besides, based on this, the metaphor of "causality is Forced Movement" is formed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Suhrawardi
  • Metaphor
  • Causality
  • Illumination
  • Motion
  • Generating
Hashemi, zohreh(2013), "no- where"( Nakojaabad) concept In two treatises of suhrawadi based on contemporary  theory of metaphor, Language Related Research,vol4, Issue 3,Autumn, pp.237-260.
Johnson,Mark(2017),The Body in the Mind;The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination and Reason, Translated by Jahanshah Mirzabeigi,Tehran:Agah publishing House.
Johnson,Mark and George Lakoff(2018), Philosophy in the Flesh; The Embodied Mind and It's Challenge To Western Thought,2thVolume, translated by Jahanshah Mirzabeigi,Tehran:Agah publishing House
Johnson,Mark and George Lakoff (2018), Metaphors We Live By, translated by Jahanshah Mirzabeigi,Tehran:Agah publishing House
khademzadeh, vahid(2017/2018),  The Existence-as-Fluid Metaphor in mullasadra's  philosophy, Islamic philosophy and Kalam, vol 50,No2,Autumn & winter, pp. 187-205. 
khademzadeh, vahid(2016), The Existence –as- Light Metaphor  in mullasadra's  philosophy, Islamic philosophy and Kalam,vol 49,No1, spring &summer, pp.19-34.
Kovecses,Zoltan(2017), Metaphor; A Practical Introduction, translated by Jahanshah Mirzabeigi,Tehran:Agah publishing House
panahi,Nematollah(2018),conceptual metaphor; perceptual paradigm of mystical Experience in suhrawardi's "Aghl-e-Sorkh",vol 18,Issue 35, winter,pp. 1-29.
Poornamdarian,Taghi(1997),Mystery and Mysterious Stories in Persian Literature (The Analysis of Philosophical and Mystical stories Ibn-sina and Suhrawardi),Tehran:scientific-cultural publication
Sajadi,Jafar(1997),The Explanation of suhrawardi's  Persian Treatises,editor Abdollah Faghihi,Tehran:The Institute of Islamic culture and Art.
Suhrawardi,ShihaboddinYahya(1993), The Collection of Works of Shakh al-Ishrag,2 Volumes ,Introduction Henry Corbin, Tehran, The Institute of cultural Studies and Researches.
Suhrawardi,ShihaboddinYahya(2009), The Collection of Works of Shakh al-Ishrag, volume 3, Introduction and Correction sayyid Husain Nasr,Tehran,The Institute for Humanities and cultural studies.
Yasrebi, Yahya(2007), Suhrawardi 's Wisdom of Illumination A Report on Hikmat al-Ishrag; Plus Comparison and  Critique along with the Original Text of Hikmatal-Ishragh,Ghom:Bustane Ketab publishers.
ارسطو(1385) فن شعر، مترجم جو ساکس، نیوبری:انتشارات فوکس
گرنت، جیمز(1389) اجتناب­ناپذیری استعاره، مجله زیبایی­شناسی انگلیسی، دوره50، ش 3، صفحات 272-255
نارایانان، سرینی(1376 ) صحبت کردن درباره بحث مانند راه رفتن است: یک الگوی محاسباتی از منظر زبانی، ارائه شده در نوزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه انجمن علوم شناختی،ماوا: انتشارات ارلبام
ریکور، پل (1356) نقش استعاره: خلق معنا در زبان، مترجم رابرت چرنی، لندن و نیویورک: راتلج