عنوان مقاله [English]
Since the best order is the best possible created order, such an order is a complete created order as an act of God the All-wise. Given the teleological notion of order, which is the harmony and coherence of the parts of a whole directed at a purpose, the existence of an order in the world can be seen as evidence of a harmony among phenomena in the world to achieve an end.
Given the process of developments and changes in the world, the discovery of its complex laws and regularities leads the human mind to a serious problem: How can such changes and developments be accounted for by the fixed and rigid laws of the world. Moreover, how can man as part of the order have a conscious free life in such a coherent and fixed world? The main question is: What is the characteristic of the dominant order of the world, in virtue of which it can accommodate all the developments and changes of the natural world, particularly the developments of man’s free acts? This research seeks to provide an account of the changes and developments of the natural world and those of man’s free acts through an account of the created order and the relationship among God, the world, and man.
In reply to objections such as the reconciliation of the human agency and the divine agency—man’s free will and divine will—theologians and philosophers have offered general accounts that fail to accommodate particularities and cannot solve problems concerning badā’ (alternation in divine will) and prayer. Because of this, it is necessary to provide an account of the world as a divine act, in which the world has room for both human choices and the deterministic processes of natural phenomena, despite its rigidity and organization.
Discussion and results
In the best order of the world, all changes and developments of the material world occur within the framework of fixed divine laws. God the All-wise exhibits proper reactions to the developments of the world in accordance with the fixed laws without undergoing passions or changes. On this picture, the world is a creative and dynamic process in a constant state of renewal. This process is creative in that it is spontaneous, internally caused, and systematic as directed by an All-wise and All-living agent. Thus, the world order is active and dynamic in accordance with fixed and inviolable laws, complying with these laws and traditions in different circumstances. In such an order, man with his power of choice applies divine traditions to himself with his power to choose.
According to the Transcendent Wisdom, in a world in which evils are inevitable because of causal conflicts, God provides man with a variety of possibilities for achieving the good. When people comply with divine traditions and the worldly order, the material and spiritual causes and forces of the world will act in their favor, leading them to further enjoyment of the material world and spiritual benefits. However, if people act against divine traditions and the worldly order, they will face negative forces and will be subject to divine traditions that lead him to a wretched life. Under the direction of an All-knowing and All-powerful God, the world displays intelligent reactions to human actions and reactions. The divine power and will are absolute, and yet, they are guide and encourage people; that is, God guides people to the good and prohibits them from evils. God’s final goal is to improve and enrich people’s practice.
In the dynamic order of the world, the fate never changes; it is made. In this order, God’s response to the prayer is not a matter of man’s influence on God. It is a matter of proper use of material and spiritual causes and forces within the framework of divine traditions and the discovery of the ways out of impasse.
We refer to such a construal of the world as the “dynamic world’ which is a lawful, intelligent, and active system or order directed by an All-knowing, All-powerful, and All-wise being, appearing in a manifestation at every moment. On this account, man has a creative and choice-making power, making his fate within the framework of divine traditions in accordance with the extent of his understanding at every moment.