عنوان مقاله [English]
The question of the immortality of the soul – which is directly relevant to any discussion on the true nature of human being - is an important and even central theme of both Plotinus and Suhrawardi, the latter being known as the founder of the Perso-Islamic Illuminationistschool of philosophy.Plotinus and Suhrawardiboth considered the soul to be the essence of the human being, hence,both thinkers engaged in some kind of ‘dualist anthropology’, although through two different approaches.In other words, they believed that man is not a simple thing, but a composite of ‘soul’ and ‘body’. Plotinus’ discussion of the relation of ‘soul’ to ‘body’ is a particular instance of his doctrine of participation, where higher is related to lower, intelligible to sensible, and form to matter.Individual human beings are composed of ‘soul’ and ‘body’, but body itself consists of ‘matter’ and ‘form’. Soul as the ‘form’ of the body, is a part of the World-Soul, but the individual soul is immaterial and immortal and linked with the ‘Intellect’ (nous).Suhrawardidid not concern himself with any kind of causal relation between ‘body’ and ‘soul’.In his teachings, the ‘Lordly Light’(nūr-iispahbad)- i.e. the vicegerent of the ‘Light of lights’ (nūr al-anwār)in the human soul – is connected with the body by means of the ‘animal soul’ (rūḥḥayawāniyya) and leaves the body for its original home in the angelic realm as soon as death destroys the equilibrium of the bodily elements.