نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی
دانشیار گروه فلسفه و کلام اسلامی، دانشگاه اصفهان
عنوان مقاله [English]
Metempsychosis, in current philosophical terms, means transition of soul from its own body into another material body, either in this world or after death. This idea is absolutely rejected by Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra through intellectual reasoning.
Each of these two great philosophers, depending on their own principles, defend the unique relation between human soul and its body and negates the dependence of it to other body/bodies. Ibn Sina’s reasoning in the negation of metempsychosis is based on that believe that soul in respect of its essence is abstract, and in respect of its act is material.
So, although the cause of act and the donor of soul is immaterial intellect, but apt temperament and body substance is prone to this emanation. Additionally, Shaykh believes that the relation between each soul and its body substance is an intrinsically obligatory one.
Mulla Sadra on the other hand, believes in novel bases such as existence gradation and strengthening; evolutional substantial movement in all of the creatures (including soul and body parallel to each other); bodily occurrence of the soul at the beginning; and mingled composition of soul and body. Besides quoting and confirming the solution of Shaykh-alraies, he benefits from the bases of the transcendent philosophy, so he not only proposed a novel presentation of some proofs against metempsychosis, but presented a new solution to prove impossibility of metempsychosis, which is only explainable by the bases of the transcendent philosophy.
This article tries to explain and compare the chosen proofs of these two philosophers to reject metempsychosis, describe their particular bases, and show how in some cases, different bases are applied to attain a specific goal