حقیقت معرفت از دیرباز مورد توجه فیلسوفان و معرفتشناسان بوده و تعریف رایج از معرفت «باور صادق موجّه» بوده است. اغلب معرفتشناسان در باب توجیه، مبناگروی یا انسجامگروی را در پیش گرفتند. حکمای مسلمان، در مؤلفه صدق، نظریه مطابقت و در مؤلفه توجیه، مبناگروی را روش خود قرار دادند. ملاصدرا با توجه به وجودی دانستن علم و تأکید بر نقش برهان و کشف در رسیدن به معرفت، به یک نظریه ترکیبی در باب توجیه دست یافته است که صرفاً مبناگروی یا انسجامگروی نیست. در این نظریه برهان و کشف (تزکیه نفس) نقش اعدادی در مواجهه وجودی با وجود مجرد و در نتیجه توجیهِ باور دارند. مبناگروی ملاصدرا در حیطه علم حصولی به معنای وجود دو نوع گزاره پایه و غیرپایه است که گزارههای غیرپایه به گزاره پایه متکی است. انسجامگروی او به معنای این است باید معارف حصولی با معارف حضوری و نیز معارف حضوری با معارف حصولی سازگار باشند. در این نظریه، حقیقت برهان و کشف یک چیز است و آن مواجهه حضوری با معلوم است، که یا محصول برهان و یا تزکیه نفس (کشف) است، به گونهای که هر دو وجود عالِم را ارتقا داده و وی را در حضور معلوم مینشاند و اتحاد عالم و معلوم محقق میگردد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Existential Foundherentism of Mulla Sadra in the Justification Element
The truth of knowledge was considered by western philosophers and epistemologists long time ago unclear sentence. They were mostly foundationalists or coherentists in the justification element. Muslim philosophers specifically paid attention to the problem of knowledge, and defined it as constant certainty corresponding reality. In consideration of ternary definition of knowledge, it can be deduced that Muslim philosophers accepted the corresponding theory in truth element, and accepted foundationalism in justification element. Though, epistemological model of Sadra is different from those of Muslim philosophers in consideration of different evaluations of statements, and emphasis on different role and place of proof and mystic intuition in reaching knowledge, and on the other hand, by accepting that knowledge is existential, and by reducing conceptual knowledge to immediate knowledge.
Understanding of Mulla Sadra's theory requires examining his method of the justification element. Various aspects are indicated to distinguish between the Transcendent Philosophy and other philosophical schools. In this view, mystic intuition can play a justifying role. From viewpoint of Mulla Sadra, what should be followed are proof and mystic intuition. In the Sadra’s system, revelation is the criterion for evaluation of mystic intuition. So, reaching knowledge demands the existence of proof or mystic intuition, and the truth of the latter should be evaluated by the revelation. Epistemic system of Sadra is formed by three elements of proof, mystic intuition, and revelation being interrelated to each other. Explaining the epistemological role of proof, mystic intuition, and revelation addresses the context of justification, uncovering the theory of the Transcendent Philosophy about the knowledge.
This study describes the problems, analyzes them, and in some cases, criticizes them using a literature review.
Results and discussion
After determination of the ternary epistemic elements, viz. proof, mystic intuition, and revelation, it can be concluded that real knowledge is gained through proof or mystic intuition. In an initial look, it seems that proof and mystic intuition are different, but since he believes that real knowledge is the immediate knowledge, it can be believed that proof and mystic intuition are single and the same, and that the reality of both is the existential encountering with non-material reality. Each of proof and mystic intuition is preparing a cause for encountering non-material existence and gaining knowledge. After considering the theories that set forth the justifying element in the Sadra’s system, and examining their faults according to this system, another theory is reached herein about justifying element, which is not just foundationalism or coherentism.
In our opinion, in consideration of epistemological foundations of the Transcendent Philosophy, one cannot believe that Mulla Sadra's theory of justification is the same as those of other Muslim epistemologists. Mulla Sadra's theory of justification is a compound one that authors named it as “existential foundherentism”. From the viewpoint of Mulla Sadra, proof and mystic intuition (purification of the soul) are the preparing causes for the existential encountering of non-material existence, and consequently, for justifying the beliefs. Coherentism of Mulla Sadra and his reliance on proof is the realm of conceptual knowledge. This means that in the realm of conceptual knowledge, he believes in two kinds of statements, i.e. foundational and non-foundational, and justifies the latter by the former. Mulla Sadra's cohrtentism implies his belief of conceptual knowledge to be compatible with immediate knowledge, the latter being compatible to the former. In consideration of Mulla Sadra's foundation, the reality of proof and mystic intuition is unique and the same, and that reality is immediate encountering the object of knowledge. This encountering, as a result, is a product of proof or purification of the soul, that is, both promote the existence of the knower and put him/her in the presence of object of the knowledge, and just here, object of the knowledge attends for the knower and the identity of knower and known occurs.
The compound theory named “existential foundherentism”, pays attention both to the role of proof and the mystic intuition. Although in some of his works, Mulla Sadra only emphasizes the proof for justifying the statements, his final viewpoint is to follow proof or mystic intuition, and that proof proves, hence it cannot be incompatible with the mystic intuition, and real proof is not against to the mystic intuition.