عنوان مقاله [English]
The science of method or methodology analysis is used in different meanings and purposes and in different sciences by researchers. Methodology can be examined at several levels. First, methodology realizes the way of delivering and presenting the content. Second, it includes techniques and types of research methods. Third, it comprises paradigms and selection among rival paradigms in the context of research questions.
The issue more intended in this article is the meaning of methodology, that is, the presentation of Qushayrī's method (way, approach, attitude), and description, classification, and analysis of his methods in collection, analysis and defense of data and claims in the book al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat.
The research approach of this thesis is descriptive-analytic by which writers have tried to analyze and describe Qushayrī's general approaches in order to write this thesis by this method.
To the authors’ knowledge, in such an issue as methodology, al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat is not regulated with a particular book. The available book and relatively coherent research book in al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat is consensually confidant, in which the writer has introduced different aspects of the book. In the field of stylistic texts of Sufism, Mohammad Gholamrezayi writes the style of Sufi prose, which is a good work in the field of mystical works and addresses the general issues of stylistic Persian prose from the fifth century to the end of the seventh century, and also some of the first works of the eighth century.
Results and discussion
Al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat, by the composer Abdulkarīm ībn Hawāzan Qushayrī, a famous writer and commentator of fifth A.H century, is a martingale piece in the Sufism aspect of Khurāsān, which intrinsically is a key and reference piece in basics and bases, instructions, formalities, and also elder's recital and sayings of Sufism men. In this thesis, the piece is known in terms of macro and general approaches and attitudes in the way of collection, receiving facts, analysis and assessment, and defense of information and data introduce original titles, collection methods, approaches, compilation resources, and goals in the book Al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat. The purpose of compilation of this thesis to determine the elements, classification, and analysis method of Qushayrī's approaches and attitudes in advertisement and defense of Sufism, resources of Qushayrī, and the utilization methods.
This study demonstrates that the thesis is a descriptive and issue-oriented research, and that Qushayrī wrote it to instruct, satisfy, and acquit himself and Sufis of criticizers’ accusations. In addition, the aspect of argument based on power is also featured in the treatise. The author used speech advocates’ methods and approaches, Hadith advocate's approaches, mystical approaches, and even jurisprudence approaches in writing and compiling the piece to attain his instructive-mystical goals.
Qushayrī has used different resources such as Qurʾān, Ḥadīth, religious books of other religions, usual stories among people, teaching sessions, and professors and Sufism elders, as well as the books written about Sufism before him as a further reason, witness, and proof of himself in writing the Risāla;. In general, the use of the pathological and intuitive way, and the inner methods, the basis of the law, the tendency towards asceticism and ethics, the tendency to practicalism, based on the religious and religious reasons, the use of verbal and philosophical reasoning methods as the propagation of Sufism and its defense, addressing the issues of Samāʿ and Kirāmat, the tendency towards the elements of Sufism in Khurāsan, and the semantic approach to the verses are all the characteristics of the work of Qushayrī in the treatise.
Qushayrī's general goals in writing the thesis are more defensive and instructive, illuminating the tie between religion, lifestyle, and acquittal of Sufis of accusations. He further provides the beliefs of this tribe to party line, and also instruction origins, basics, formalities, and Sufism advocate's terminologies to the contacts by the wayfarers, followers, and the public. Personal, mental, religious, believing, social, political reasons, and elements can be among the most important elements in writing and compiling the book.
Qushayrī in his issue-oriented and descriptive piece (Al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat) uses historical and reportal methods, and descriptive and logical (based on loyalty) method as an analysis and assessment of information (and defense of claims). He has used different approaches including speech advocate's approaches, tellers of Ḥadīth, juris consults and Gnostics to attain his instructive, satisfying, and educative goals. Qushayrī's resources in the thesis are various considering method, content, instructive, religious, and mystical goals; he also uses more Qurʾān, Ḥadīth and also elder's sayings of Sufism. The way he encounters the others’ vote is more descriptive and reportal.
In general, in the restatement of Al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat, the educational aspect is more tangible than the educational one, and the features of this work derive from the former aspect.