نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی
استادیار گروه علوم و معارف اسلامی، دانشکده الهیات و مطالعات اسلامی شهید مطهری، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Despite the physicalistic approach to the mind in the present century, the existence of the mental states different from body states has caused various scales to be put forth regarding mental issues, the most important of which are awareness, being first person, and intentionality.
Awareness possesses an extensive domain incorporating senses, perceptions, recalling, visual representation, tendencies, imagination, beliefs, and thoughts. Being a first person means immediate reception such as all the intuitive perceptions deployed as opposed to acquisitive ones. In fact, it can be stated that the indicators mean presence by one’s own self. The intentionality means reference to a thing or being about a thing. In a mental issue, a man gains a certain experience, such as hope or doubt, in regard of a certain issue in the external world. Such mental affairs as doubt, hope, belief, and so forth are issues that have an attachment to a thing in the world outside and make reference thereto; doubt in…, hope in…, and belief in… are all characteristics of this intentionality. This is the common attribute of all voluntary actions and sensory perceptions as well. Intentionality is indeed a personal representation of the external world. Each of these indicators has difficulties in representation of mental issues. As opined by some, awareness is so diverse that it has to be separately defined for each of its type. For example, qualitative awareness cannot be grouped in a class with phenomenal awareness. In some others’ opinions, awareness is a process, not a phenomenon. It also exists in animals because of the similarity of their cerebral structure to human beings, even though it is more advanced in the latter.
Another case of breach in introducing the indicator as an index of mental issue should be sought in human being’s unconscious states.
The existing shortfall in regard of being first person is that there are many non-intermediated and immediate affairs that are not mental. Can pain be truly considered mental as ruled based on this indicator while it can be imagined by all the creatures? Meanwhile, the intentionality is a less flawed indicator. Investigations on the Transcendent Philosophy (Ḥikmat-i Mutaʿālīa;) are well reflective of the importance of ego attention or notice. Mulla Sadra made use of intention or attention of ego (soul) in his works about God, human beings and other creatures such as animals, plants and inanimate ones. It means that the concept was applied in Mulla Sadra’s works for three types of existents, namely necessary being, speaker (thinker) existent, and all other non-speaker existents. The use cases of ego attention and intention will be examined regarding the human actions in the Transcendent Philosophy so as to conclude that how and under what conditions the ego (soul) intention can be introduced as a criterion for distinguishing non-bodily from bodily affairs?
Perception: Sadr al-Mutiʾallihīn knows perception nothing more than ego (soul, nafs) attention.
Acquisition of Sciences: In some expressions, Mulla Sadra states that all the perceptions related to the human mind in a rank by rank manner in sum, and realizes them all as the result of ego’s attention to intellect and the heart of the truths.
Creativity: A type of extrinsic ego attention is intended in the Transcendent Philosophy in which intention is directed from a superior being, the Righteous One, to the inferior being, the creatures. The attention, by itself, causes the inscription of the truths in the ego and generates creativities as well.
Liberty (Ikhtīyār) and Intentionality: In the Transcendent Philosophy, the type of human deeds and behaviors or human liberty is a function of non-essential ego attention to the two general extreme ends. Actions are purposive as long as they are functions of this attention or intention.
Judgment: Judging the right or wrong is nothing more than paying attention to the connection of a sentence’s components.
Worships and Prayers: Mulla Sadra constantly speaks of an inherent intention inside all the creatures in their doing of their deeds, and this makes the nature of things move in a certain direction. But, as for the human beings, consideration of attention or not disregarding the attention is unique and specific.
Guess, Thought: intellectual issues are obtained by a middle term. It means that there is a need for a middle term in order to be able to figure out knowns from unknowns, thereby, to arrive at intelligibles.
Pleasures and Pains: Joy is the perception of consistency and compliance of an issue with the human nature.
Love and Zeal: An intentionality of ego is named zeal and love. In a sort of classification, Mulla Sadra divides attention and intention into two sets, namely innate (inherent) and unnatural (extrinsic). In another general categorization, he divides the intention into intention to superior things and intention to inferior things. In this way, although attention or intention of a thing is shared by human beings and other creatures, its application is vividly divided into two parts, called “essential attention” and “non-essential attention”, and he excludes various kinds of attention in animals. Amongst the human actions as well, such indicators as “nonphysical” or “ego-oriented” are “ego’s non-essential attentions” based on the Transcendent Philosophy. The “essential ego attention” is the necessary and enough condition in distinguishing the ego-oriented affairs. The indicator “essential intention” is succinctly characterized by awareness because not all sorts of insights are required for a mental issue. This latter indicator encompasses all the other distinctions as well, is conclusive and exclusive of all the mental issues, and is in perfect coordination with the other basics of ego study by Mulla Sadra.