عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
In psychology, the recognition of personality and its components plays a fundamental role in the treatment of psychological disorders. On the other hand, self-cognition is also the basis for the formation of moral virtues in many moral theories. Since the ‘self’ in Islamic philosophical ethical theories has some similarities to personality in psychological theories, one can compare, in some ways, self-cognition to personality-cognition. In this paper we seek to compare Freud's theory of personality, as an important theory in psychology, to Ibn Miskawayh’s self-cognition theory, as an introductory to one of the most fundamental Islamic ethical views. The findings of this research show that, despite their similarities, there is a significant difference in the origin and meaning of moral values between these theories. In Freud's theory, ethical values are the product of a subconscious process and actually ethical perfection is in conflict with mental health. But in Miskawayh’s self-cognition theory, ethical virtues are linked to rationality and are achieved consciously and voluntarily. Accordingly, in this theory, moral perfection, rationality and mental health are aligned.