675648c2785e9a3

تحلیل رویکردها و رهیافت‌های قشیری در کتاب رساله قشیریه

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده ادبیات و زبان‌های خارجی، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده ادبیات و زبان‌های خارجی، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

چکیده

کتاب ترجمه رسالة قشیریه از امام قشیری از امهات و مراجع  آثار عرفانی در قرن پنجم هجری است. در مقالة حاضر، این اثر از حیث رویکردها و رهیافت‌­های کلی و کلان، در شیوه گردآوری و دریافت حقایق و تحلیل و ارزیابی و دفاع از اطلاعات و داده­‌ها، معرفی، دسته­‌بندی و تحلیل روش‌­شناسی می­‌شود. با بررسی حاضر که به شیوه توصیفی-تحلیلی انجام گرفته، معلوم شده است که مصنف در تدوین و نگارش رساله و برای رسیدن به اهداف تعلیمی-عرفانی خود از روش­­‌ها و رهیافت‌­های اهل کلام، رهیافت­‌های اهل حدیث، رهیافت‌­های عرفانی و حتی از رهیافت‌­های فقهی بهره می­‌جوید.
اهداف عمده قشیری در نگارش رساله بیشتر دفاعی و آموزشی است، یعنی آشکارسازی پیوند شریعت و طریقت و تبرئه اهل تصوف از اتهامات، و اثبات اعتقاد این طایفه به اصول عقاید، و نیز آموزش اصول و مبانی و آداب و اصطلاحات اهل تصوف به مخاطبان از سالکان و مریدان یا عموم خواهندگان.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Approaches and ways in "al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat"

نویسندگان [English]

  • Batoul Fallah Barzoki 1
  • Reza Rouhani 2
1 PhD Student of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Foreign Language and Literature, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Foreign Language and Literature, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The science of method or methodology analysis is used in different meanings and purposes and in different sciences by researchers. Methodology can be examined at several levels. First, methodology realizes the way of delivering and presenting the content. Second, it includes techniques and types of research methods. Third, it comprises paradigms and selection among rival paradigms in the context of research questions.
 The issue more intended in this article is the meaning of methodology, that is, the presentation of Qushayrī's method (way, approach, attitude), and description, classification, and analysis of his methods in collection, analysis and defense of data and claims in the book al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat.
 
Methods
The research approach of this thesis is descriptive-analytic by which writers have tried to analyze and describe Qushayrī's general approaches in order to write this thesis by this method.
 
Discussion Background
To the authors’ knowledge, in such an issue as methodology, al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat is not regulated with a particular book. The available book and relatively coherent research book in al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat is consensually confidant, in which the writer has introduced different aspects of the book. In the field of stylistic texts of Sufism, Mohammad Gholamrezayi writes the style of Sufi prose, which is a good work in the field of mystical works and addresses the general issues of stylistic Persian prose from the fifth century to the end of the seventh century, and also some of the first works of the eighth century.
 
Results and discussion
Al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat, by the composer Abdulkarīm ībn Hawāzan Qushayrī, a famous writer and commentator of fifth A.H century, is a martingale piece in the Sufism aspect of Khurāsān, which intrinsically is a key and reference piece in basics and bases, instructions, formalities, and also elder's recital and sayings of Sufism men. In this thesis, the piece is known in terms of macro and general approaches and attitudes in the way of collection, receiving facts, analysis and assessment, and defense of information and data introduce original titles, collection methods, approaches, compilation resources, and goals in the book Al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat. The purpose of compilation of this thesis to determine the elements, classification, and analysis method of Qushayrī's approaches and attitudes in advertisement and defense of Sufism, resources of Qushayrī, and the utilization methods.
 This study demonstrates that the thesis is a descriptive and issue-oriented research, and that Qushayrī wrote it to instruct, satisfy, and acquit himself and Sufis of criticizers’ accusations. In addition, the aspect of argument based on power is also featured in the treatise. The author used speech advocates’ methods and approaches, Hadith advocate's approaches, mystical approaches, and even jurisprudence approaches in writing and compiling the piece to attain his instructive-mystical goals.
Qushayrī has used different resources such as Qurʾān, Ḥadīth, religious books of other religions, usual stories among people, teaching sessions, and professors and Sufism elders, as well as the books written about Sufism before him as a further reason, witness, and proof of himself in writing the Risāla;. In general, the use of the pathological and intuitive way, and the inner methods, the basis of the law, the tendency towards asceticism and ethics, the tendency to practicalism, based on the religious and religious reasons, the use of verbal and philosophical reasoning methods as the propagation of Sufism and its defense, addressing the issues of Samāʿ and Kirāmat, the tendency towards the elements of Sufism in Khurāsan, and the semantic approach to the verses are all the characteristics of the work of Qushayrī in the treatise.
Qushayrī's general goals in writing the thesis are more defensive and instructive, illuminating the tie between religion, lifestyle, and acquittal of Sufis of accusations. He further provides the beliefs of this tribe to party line, and also instruction origins, basics, formalities, and Sufism advocate's terminologies to the contacts by the wayfarers, followers, and the public. Personal, mental, religious, believing, social, political reasons, and elements can be among the most important elements in writing and compiling the book.
 
Conclusion
Qushayrī in his issue-oriented and descriptive piece (Al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat) uses historical and reportal methods, and descriptive and logical (based on loyalty) method as an analysis and assessment of information (and defense of claims). He has used different approaches including speech advocate's approaches, tellers of Ḥadīth, juris consults and Gnostics to attain his instructive, satisfying, and educative goals. Qushayrī's resources in the thesis are various considering method, content, instructive, religious, and mystical goals; he also uses more Qurʾān, Ḥadīth and also elder's sayings of Sufism. The way he encounters the others’ vote is more descriptive and reportal.
In general, in the restatement of Al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat, the educational aspect is more tangible than the educational one, and the features of this work derive from the former aspect.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Al-Risālat al-Qushayrīat
  • Imām Qushayrī
  • methodology
  • Approachology
  • Collection Metod
  • Analysis of Information
احمدی، جمال(1389)، «کلام اشعری در کلام قشیری»، فصل‌نامۀ زبان و ادب فارسیدانشکدۀ علوم انسانی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد سنندج، س 2، ش 5.
پورنامداریان، تقی (1389)،رمزوداستانهایرمزی، تهران: علمی و فرهنگی.
خاکی، غلامرضا(1378)، روشتحقیقبارویکردیبهپایان‌نامه‌نویسی، تهران: وزارت فرهنگ و آموزش عالی با هم‌کاری کانون فرهنگی انتشاراتی.
خسروپناه، عبدالحسین(1389)،فلسفۀ اسلامی، تهران: سازمان انتشارات پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشۀ اسلامی.
رضایتی کیشه خاله، محرم (1384)،تحقیقدررسالۀ قشیریه، با تأملیدرافکاروآثارامامقشیری، تهران: انجمن آثار و مفاخر فرهنگی.
زرین‌کوب، عبدالحسین (1357)،جست‌وجودرتصوفایران، تهران: امیرکبیر.
ساروخانی، باقر(1373)، روش‌های تحقیق در علوم اجتماعی، ج 1، تهران: پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی.
شاله، فیلیپس(1350)،شناختروشعلومیافلسفۀ علمی، ترجمۀ یحیی مهدوی، تهران: دانشگاه تهران.
شریعتی سبزواری، محمدباقر (1389)، «کانون اصلی ظهور و افول عرفان‌ها»، س 29، ش 80.
شفیعی کدکنی، محمدرضا (1392)،زبانشعردرنثرصوفیه، تهران: سخن.
فتوحی رودمعجنی، محمود (1391) سبکشناسی،نظریهها،رویکردها، و روشها، تهران:سخن.
فتوحی، محمود(1389)،«از کلام متمکن تا کلام مغلوب»، نقدادبی، س 3، ش 10.
فولادی، علیرضا(1389)،زبانعرفان، تهران: سخن؛ قم: فراگفت.
فرامرز قراملکی، احد(1378)، هندسۀ معرفتی کلام جدید، تهران: مؤسسۀ فرهنگی دانش و اندیشۀمعاصر.
فرامرز قراملکی،احد(1388)،روش‌شناسی مطالعات دینی، مشهد: دانشگاه علوم اسلامی رضوی.
قشیری، عبدالکریم بن هوازن (1383)،رسالۀ قشیریه، ترجمۀ ابوعلی حسن بن احمد عثمانی، تصحیح بدیع‌الزمان فروزان‌فر، تهران: علمی و فرهنگی.
مطهری، مرتضی(1370)، آشناییباعلوماسلامی،منطق و فلسفه، تهران: صدرا.
ملک، نیلوفر(1392)،«مطالعۀ تطبیقی مفهوم روش‌شناسی و نظریه از منظر پژوهش‌های کمی و کیفی با تأکید بر نظریه‌پردازی در معماری»، نشریۀ مطالعات تطبیقی هنر، س 3، ش 5.